Are you an aspiring QA professional who is looking to prepare for manual QA interview questions? This article has curated the top 25 manual QA interview questions to help you prepare quickly, covering a broad range of topics. Even if you are starting a career in QA or are an experienced professional aiming for a new role, in either case, this article will provide the insights and knowledge to answer the QA interviews confidently.

Manual QA Interview Questions

1. What do you know about Quality Assurance (QA)?

  • You may describe QA as a process-oriented approach that focuses on preventing or avoiding defects in products or services. QA makes sure that the required quality standards and procedures are followed correctly throughout the development process.
  • Answer example: “Quality Assurance assures that the development and maintenance processes are efficient and effective as per the quality standards defined for software products and the product quality will be achieved.”

2. Can you differentiate between QA and Quality Control (QC)?

  • QA is process-oriented and focuses on preventing defects, while QC is product-oriented and concentrates on identifying defects in finished products.
  • Answer example: “QA is process-oriented, proactive, and focuses on defect prevention. Whereas QC is product-oriented, preventive, and focuses on defect identification. Therefore, we can say that the QA is about processes, and QC is about the final product.”

3. What is a Test Case?

  • A test case is a set of conditions, variables, and steps under which a tester determines whether an application or software system works as per the user’s expectation.
  • Answer example: “A test case is a set of actions or steps executed to verify a particular feature or functionality of a software application. It includes test steps, expected results, actual results, test data, and pre-conditions.”

4. How do you write an effective test case?

  • Effective test cases are clear and concise, contain step-by-step instructions and expected outcomes, and cover positive and negative scenarios.
  • Answer example: “Effective test cases are clear, concise, and comprehensive. I make sure that they include prerequisites, assumptions, test data, clear steps to follow, and expected and actual results. It is always a good idea to get the test cases peer-reviewed to know of any shortcomings and fix them before starting the testing.”

5. What are the different types of testing?

  • Include functional testing (validating software against functional requirements), non-functional testing (performance, usability, reliability testing), black-box (testing without knowing internal structure), and white-box (testing with knowledge of internal structure).
  • Answer example: “There’s functional testing for verifying functionalities, non-functional for testing performance, usability, etc., black-box for testing without internal code knowledge, and white-box for testing with internal code insight.”

6. What is the difference between Verification and Validation?

  • Verification ensures the product is being built correctly and in accordance with requirements, while validation ensures the finished product meets the user’s needs.
  • Answer example: “Verification is the process of checking if the software meets the specified requirements, while validation checks if the software meets the user’s needs and expectations. In short, verification is: Are we building the product right? And validation is: Are we building the right product?”

7. Explain the Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC).

  • Detail phases include requirement analysis, test planning, test case development, environment setup, test execution, and test cycle closure.
  • Answer example: “STLC involves phases like requirement analysis, test planning, test case development, environment setup, test execution, and finally, test closure. Every phase has its own entry, exit criteria, and artifacts.”

8. What is a bug’s life cycle?

  • Discuss stages: identification, assignment, fixing, testing, and closure.
  • Answer example: “The bug life cycle includes stages like bug identification, assignment, fixing, testing, and closure. It’s a process that bugs go through from discovery to resolution.”

9. How do you prioritize testing tasks?

  • Talk about considering factors like risk, business impact, frequency of use, and criticality of the application features.
  • Answer example: “I prioritize based on risk, business impact, severity, and frequency of usage of the application features by end users.”

10. What is Regression Testing?

  • Explain that it involves retesting a previously tested program after a modification, i.e., bug fix or requirement change. It makes sure that these code changes have not introduced any new defects in the unchanged areas of the software.
  • Answer example: “Regression Testing is about testing the unchanged parts of the application. It validates that new changes haven’t adversely affected existing working functionalities by introducing new defects.”

11. How do you ensure the quality of your tests?

  • Discuss practices like peer reviews, maintaining traceability to requirements, updating tests based on defects found, and continuously improving test processes.
  • Answer example: “I ensure test quality through peer reviews, maintaining traceability to requirements, and updating tests based on discovered defects. When there are functionality/requirement changes, then the test suites should be updated to reflect the most recent changes. It is particularly true for regression tests.”

12. What is a Test Plan, and what does it include?

  • A test plan documents the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It should include test objectives, test environment, test items, features to be tested, and tasks.
  • Answer example: “A Test Plan is a document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule for testing activities. It includes test objectives, items to be tested, tasks, and who will do each task.”

13. Can you explain the concept of a Test Strategy?

  • This high-level document outlines the general testing approach, including testing objectives, methods, total time and resources required, and the testing environment.
  • Answer example: “A Test Strategy is a high-level document outlining the general testing approach of the organization. It includes testing objectives, methods, and resources required for the project.”

14. What are the key challenges in manual testing?

  • Issues such as human error, time constraints, boredom, repetitive work, maintaining test documentation, etc.
  • Answer example: “Key challenges include managing repetitive tasks, maintaining detailed documentation, human error, complex calculations, and ensuring comprehensive test coverage.”

15. How do you stay updated with the latest testing techniques?

  • Discuss continuous learning through forums, online courses, webinars, blogs, and community involvement.
  • Answer example: “I stay updated through online courses, webinars, blogs, and participating in QA forums and communities.”

16. What tools have you used for manual testing?

  • Mention experience with tools like JIRA for bug tracking, TestLink, TestRail for test management, Selenium for automation (if applicable), etc.
  • Answer example: “I have experience using JIRA for bug tracking, TestLink for test management, and basic knowledge of testRigor for automation purposes.”

17. How do you handle a situation where you find many bugs?

  • Prioritize bugs based on severity and impact, communicate effectively with the development team, and manage the bug-fixing process efficiently.
  • Answer example: “When reporting a bug, I provide detailed information, including steps to reproduce, severity, priority, and attach logs or screenshots. I ensure clarity and completeness in the bug report for efficient resolution. Also, it may require discussions with the stakeholders to help them decide if they need to revise the delivery schedule because the quality of the product is impacted.”

18. What is your process for reporting a bug?

  • You should highlight the importance of providing detailed information, including steps to reproduce, logs, screenshots, severity, priority, and environmental setup.
  • Answer example: “When reporting a bug, I provide detailed information, including steps to reproduce, severity, priority, and attach logs or screenshots. I ensure clarity and completeness in the bug report for efficient resolution.”

19. Can you give an example of a high-severity and low-priority bug?

  • Illustrate with an example like a crash appearing in a rarely used feature of an application. The severity is high due to the crash, but the priority is low due to the feature’s infrequent use.
  • Answer example: “An example would be a crash in a feature used by a small fraction of users rarely. The crash is severe, but the priority is low given the limited impact on the overall user base.”

20. What is User Acceptance Testing (UAT)?

  • UAT is the final phase of the software testing process, where end-users test the software to ensure it can handle required tasks in real-world scenarios according to specifications.
  • Answer example: “End-users conduct UAT to ensure the software meets their needs and works as expected in real-world scenarios. It’s the final phase of testing before the software goes live. There are two types of UAT: Alpha and Beta testing. Alpha testing is performed internally by the developers or testers in a closed environment. A limited number of real users perform beta testing in the real environment.”

21. How do you measure test coverage?

  • Discuss techniques like requirement traceability matrices (RTM) to ensure test cases cover all requirements and use code coverage tools if applicable.
  • Answer example: “Test coverage is measured by ensuring that all requirements are mapped to test cases. I also use tools and metrics to measure code coverage to ensure that most of the code is tested.”

22. What is the importance of a Test Environment in manual testing?

  • Emphasize that a test environment mimics the production environment and is crucial for ensuring the software performs as expected in real-world scenarios.
  • Answer example: “A dedicated test environment is crucial as it replicates the production environment, which helps identify environment-specific issues and ensures the software performs as expected under realistic conditions. A correct test environment helps mitigate a situation (failure) that may only arise in a real user environment.”

23. Can you describe a challenging QA project you worked on?

  • Share an experience highlighting problem-solving skills, adaptability, team collaboration, and technical expertise. Focus on the challenges you faced and how you overcame them.
  • Answer example: “Try to provide a real example: I worked on a project with tight deadlines and complex functionality. I focused on prioritizing tasks, extensive communication, and detailed test planning, which helped in successful and timely delivery.”

24. How do you ensure test repeatability and reproducibility?

  • Talk about documenting test cases, using consistent data, and maintaining a stable test environment.
  • Answer example: “I ensure repeatability and reproducibility by maintaining well-documented, clear, and precise test cases with consistent test data and by using a stable test environment.”

25. What is your approach to learning new domains or technologies?

  • Describe a proactive approach to learning, such as taking relevant courses, participating in workshops, reading industry literature, and hands-on practice.
  • Answer example: “I actively pursue learning through online courses, reading industry-specific literature, and hands-on practice. I also participate in workshops and seminars on the new domain or technology to stay abreast of the latest developments.”

Final Words

As we conclude our exploration of the top 25 manual QA interview questions, it’s essential to reflect on the significance of these questions in shaping your understanding and approach to QA roles. These questions are not just a means for interviewers to assess your technical knowledge; they also provide a framework to demonstrate your problem-solving skills, attention to detail, and commitment to quality.

Remember, the field of QA is dynamic and constantly evolving, so staying informed and continuously learning is crucial. Use these questions as a guide to prepare thoroughly for your interviews, and don’t hesitate to personalize your answers with real-life experiences and insights. With the proper preparation and mindset, you are well on your way to securing a role in this challenging and rewarding field.

Best of luck in your QA journey!